Effect of Heavy Metals and Nutrients Levels of Ballast Waters in Commercial Ships on Chemical Quality Status of Seawater of the Tobruk-libya Gulf
American Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics
Volume 4, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages: 121-124
Received: Aug. 15, 2019;
Accepted: Sep. 16, 2019;
Published: Oct. 9, 2019
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Gaith Gaballa Altohame Jalgaif, Port & Maritime Transport Authortity, Ministry of Transport, Tobruk, Libya
Salah Ali Mahgoub Idris, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tobruk University, Tobruk, Libya
Rabie Ali Maarouf, Oceanography Department, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt
Ahmed Moursy Attia, Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt
Manal Mahmoud El-Naggar, Marine Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Ministry of Scientific Research, Alexandria, Egypt
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Marine transportation still generates negative impacts on the marine environment, including releases of ballast water containing aquatic invasive species; historical use of antifoulants; oil and chemical spills; dry bulk cargo releases; garbage; underwater noise pollution; ship-strikes on marine megafauna; risk of ship grounding or sinkings; and widespread sediment contamination of ports during trans-shipment or ship breaking activities. Commercial vessels that do not conduct ballast water exchange, in accordance with International Convention Ballast Water Management, will endager the environment of ports. In this study, investigation of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) and nutrients (NO3, NO2, NH4, PO4 and SiO4) contents in ballast waters of three commercial ships entering the Tobruk port, along the Tobruk Gulf. High concentration levels were observed in all samples which were the main source of high heavey metals concentration of coastal waters of Tobruk Gulf. These results were confirmed by determination of nutrients concentration which were also found in high concentrations levels compared with reference sample. Results showed that in a long term the ballast water has the potential to change the chemical quality in marine environments, and it should treated before discharge in coastal areas, as well as the unpolluted of ballast waters should be loaded.
Ballast Water, Heavy Metals, Nutrients, Tobruk Gulf
To cite this article
Gaith Gaballa Altohame Jalgaif,
Salah Ali Mahgoub Idris,
Rabie Ali Maarouf,
Ahmed Moursy Attia,
Manal Mahmoud El-Naggar,
Effect of Heavy Metals and Nutrients Levels of Ballast Waters in Commercial Ships on Chemical Quality Status of Seawater of the Tobruk-libya Gulf, American Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2019, pp. 121-124.
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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